Mishnah Tosefta Pesahim
Based on the Kaufman manuscript: http://jnul.huji.ac.il/dl/talmud/mishna/selectmi.asp
Click here for a PDF of the sources.
On the eve of Pesahim close to minhah one may not eat until nightfall. Even the poorest person in Israel ust not eat [on the night of Pesah] until he reclines. And they should give him not less than four cups [of wine], and even from the charity plate.
They mixed him the first cup: Bet Shammai say: first he blesses over the day and then over the wine. Bet Hillel say: first he blesses over the wine and then over the day.
They bring [it] in front of him. He dips lettuce before until he reaches the appetizer that precedes the bread. They bring before him matzah, lettuce, and haroset (and two dishes) though the haroset is not mandatory. Rabbi Elazar son of Rabbi Zadok says: it is mandatory. And in the Temple they bring the body of the pesah before him.
They mixed him a second cup, and here the son asks his father. If the son lacks the intelligence to ask, his father instructs him: How different this night is from all other nights! On all other nights we dip even once, on this night we dip twice? On all other nights we eat hametz or matzah, on this night only matzah. On all other nights we eat roasted, stewed or boiled meat, on this night only roasted. According to the intelligence of the son, the father teaches him. He begins with shame and concludes with praise; and they expound from arami oved avi (Deuteronomy 6:20-25) until he completes the whole section.
Rabban Gamaliel used to say: whoever does not make mention of these three things on Pesah does not fulfill his duty: the pesah, matzah, and bitter herbs. The pesah because God passed over the houses of our ancestors in Egypt. The matzah because they were redeemed. The bitter herbs because the Egyptians embittered the lives of our ancestors in Egypt. Therefore it is our duty to thank, praise, laud, glorify, raise up, and magnify to the One who made all these miracles for us and for our ancestors; and He brought us forth from slavery into freedom, Let us say before him, Hallelujah!
How far does he recite [the Hallel before the meal]? Bet Shammai say: Until As a joyous mother of children (Psalm 113). But Bet Hillel say: Until The flinty rock into a fountain of waters (Psalm 114). And he concludes with [a formula of] redemption.
They poured him a third cup, he blesses over his meal. A fourth [cup], he concludes the Hallel, and recites over it the blessing of song. Between these cups if he wants he may drink; between the third and the fourth he may not drink.
One may not conclude the pesah meal with an afikoman. If some of them fell asleep, they may eat [the pesah when they wake up]. If all of them fell asleep they may not eat. Rabbi Jose says: if they napped, they may eat, but if they fell asleep, they may not eat.
The pesah defiles ones hands after midnight. Piggul and remnant defile ones hands. If he recited the blessing for the pesah, he thereby exempts the sacrifice [the hagigah]; [but if he recited the blessing] for the sacrifice [the hagigah], he does not exempt the pesah, the words of Rabbi Ishmael. Rabbi Akiva says: this does not exempt that nor does that exempt this.
Tosefta Pesahim, Chapter Ten
Based on Vienna manuscript, transcribed in Lieberman edition.
ניהן ונועדו והלכו להן לבית המדרש
On the eve of Pesahim, close to the time of Minhah, a person should not eat until it becomes dark. Even a poor person in Israel should not eat until he reclines. And they should provide him with not less than four cups of wine that together have a reviit. Whether unmixed or mixed, whether new wine or old wine. R. Judah says: as long as it has the taste and appearance of wine.
They mixed him the first cup: Bet Shammai say he blesses over the day and then he blesses over the wine, for the day causes the wine to come, and the day has already been sanctified and wine has not yet come. And Bet Hillel say he blesses the wine and then he blesses the day, for the wine causes the sanctity of the day to be recited.
Another reason: the blessing over the wine is frequently recited, and the blessing over the day is infrequently recited. And the halakhah is like the words of Bet Hillel.
It is a mitzvah for a man to gladden his children, and the members of his household on the festival. How does he make them happy? With wine, as it is written, And wine shall gladden a mans heart (Psalms 104:15). R. Judah says: women with what is appropriate for them and minors with what is appropriate for them.
The servant dips meats and places them before the guests, and even though there is no proof for this practice there is something reminiscent of it, Break up the untilled ground and do not sow among thorns (Jeremiah 4:3).
The one who reads the Hallel. They go to him and read, and he does not go to them.
One who reads for his minor sons and daughters he needs to respond with them in the place that one responds. In what place does he respond? When he gets to Blessed be He, he says with them, In the name of God. He gets to We bless You, He says with them from the House of the Lord (Psalm 118:26).
The people of the city who dont have one to read the Hallel for them, they go to the synagogue and read the first chapter, and then they go home, they eat and drink and then return and complete the Hallel. And if this is impossible, they finish the whole Hallel. The Hallelthey dont diminish it and they dont add to it.
- Lazar b. Porta would recite things simply. Rabbi would repeat things.
- Lazar says: they divvy out matzah to children so that they wont fall asleep. R. Judah says: even if he only ate one appetizer, even if he made only one dipping, they divvy up matzah to children so that they wont fall asleep.
Up until where does he recite [before the meal]? Bet Shammai say: Until as a happy mother of children (Psalms 114:9). Bet Hillel says: the flinty rock into a fountain (Psalms 115:8). And he concludes with [a blessing] over redemption. Bet Shammai said to Bet Hillel: Has Israel already been redeemed they mention the Exodus from Egypt. Bet Hillel said to them: Even if he waits until the cock crows, since they didnt go out [of Egypt] until the sixth hour of the day, how can he recite the redemption, and they hadnt yet gone out. The matzah, the lettuce and the haroset, even though the haroset is not a mitzvah. R. Lazar b. R. Zadok says: it is a mitzvah. In the Temple they bring in front of him the pesah.
It happened that R. Lazar bar Zadok said to the merchants of Lod, come and take for yourselves the mandated spices.
And they may not conclude with an afikoman after the pesah, like nuts and dates and parched corn.
A person must study the laws of Pesah all night, even if it is just him with his son, or by himself, or with his student.
It happened that Rabban Gamaliel and the elders were reclining in the house of Bitos b. Zunin in Lod and they were engaging themselves in the study of the laws of Pesah all night until the cock crowed. They removed [the tables] from them and they got up and went to the Bet Midrash
What is the blessing over the pesah? Blessed is He who has sanctified us with His commandments and commanded us to eat the Pesah.
What is the blessing over the [hagigah] sacrifice? Blessed is He who has sanctified us with His commandments and commanded us to eat the [hagigah] sacrifice