Kinim, Chapter One, Mishnah Three


Mishnah Three

1)      When is this so?  When obligatory offerings [get mixed up] with voluntary offerings. 

2)      When, however, obligatory offerings get mixed up one with another, with one [pair] belonging to one [woman] and the other pair to another [woman], or two [pairs] belonging to one and two [pairs] to another, or three [pairs] to one and three [pairs] to another, then half of these are valid and the other half disqualified.  

3)     If one [pair] belongs to one [woman] and two pairs to another, or three pairs to another, or ten pairs to another or one hundred to another, only the lesser number remains valid.

4)      Whether they are of the same denomination   or of two denominations,   or whether they belong to one woman or to two.



Section one: The rules taught in mishnah two refer to cases where obligatory offerings (kinim) become mixed up with olot or hataot whose status has been determined.

Section two: However, if obligatory offerings get mixed up and half of the total offerings belong to one person and half to another, then the priest can take half of the birds and offer half of them as hataot and the other half as olot. Let’s take the simplest example, that of two kinim getting mixed up. If he offers one as a hatat and one as an olah, he is guaranteed to be correct. Because if one is from one ken and the other from one ken, then he has offered half of each ken. And if they are both from the same ken, then he has offered them properly. However, he can’t offer two hataot or two olot, lest both birds belonged to the same woman and are part of the same ken. The same will hold true no matter how many kinim get mixed up, as long as the number brought by each person is the same.

Section three: If the numbers are uneven, then the priest can only offer according to the lower number. For instance, if one woman brought one ken and another woman brought two, he can only offer one hatat and one olah. For if he were to offer more than one olah or hatat, he might have offered both birds brought by the first woman as an olah (or hatat) and only one can be of each type. This same rule will hold true no matter how large the inequity. Even if one woman brings 100 pairs and one brings one, only two birds, one a hatat and one an olah, can be offered.

Section four: Denomination refers to the reason why the woman had to bring a sacrifice. This shall be clarified in tomorrow’s mishnah.