Megillah, Chapter Two, Mishnah Five
One can fulfill ones obligation of hearing the Megillah at any time during the day. Our mishnah gives a very long list of numerous other rituals that one can perform at any time duing the day.
Since this list is very long, I will not explain each item in detail, but rather mostly make reference to the relevant biblical verse(s) which deal with the issue. I will not even comment on issues that seem abundantly clear.
The whole day is a valid time for
1) reading the Megillah;
2) reciting Hallel;
3) for the blowing of the shofar;
4) for taking up the lulav;
5) for the Musaf prayer;
6) for Musaf sacrifices;
7) for confession over the oxen;
8) for the confession over the tithe;
9) for the confession of sins on Yom HaKippurim;
10) for laying on of hands;
11) for slaughtering [the sacrifices];
12) for waving [them];
13) for bringing near [the vessel with the minhah-offering to the altar];
14) for taking a handful;
15) for placing it on the fire;
16) for pinching off [the head of a bird-offering];
17) for receiving the blood [in a vessel];
18) for sprinkling [the blood on the altar];
19) for making the sotah drink [the bitter waters];
20) for breaking the neck of the heifer;
21) and for purifying the metzora.
Sections 6-7: On Shabbat, holidays and Rosh Hodesh there are musaf sacrifices and musaf prayers. The sacrifices can be offered at any time during the day and the prayers may be recited throughout the whole day.
Section 8: For confession over the oxOne who brings an ox as a sacrifice also confesses to the sin for which the ox is brought (Leviticus 4:3,14).
Section 9: For the confession over the titheOn the fourth and seventh years of the sabbatical cycle one makes a confession that he has removed all of the holy produce from his home (Deuteronomy 26:13).
Section 10: For the confession of sins on Yom HaKippurimThe high priest recites a confession over the sacrifices (Leviticus 16:21; see also Yoma 3:8, 4:2, 6:2).
Section 11: For laying on of handsone lays ones hands on an animal sacrifice before it is slaughtered (Leviticus 1:4).
Section 13: For waving [them]one waves the innards and the breast of wellbeing offerings (Leviticus 7:30).
Section 14-16: these are all elements of the minhah offering.
Section 17: For pinching off [the head of a bird-offering]Leviticus 1:15, 5:8.
Section 18: For receiving the blood [in a vessel]in order to sprinkle it on the altar.
Section 20: For breaking the neck of the heiferif a dead body is found in a field and the identity of the murderer is unknown (Deuteronomy 21:1)
Section 21: And for purifying the metzoraLeviticus 14.