Menahot, Chapter One, Mishnah Three

 

Introduction

This mishnah is nearly similar to Zevahim 2:2-5. It deals with various ways in which the minhah offering is disqualified.

 

Mishnah Three

1)      If he put in too much of its oil or too little of its oil or too little of its frankincense, it is invalid.

2)      One who takes a fistful from the minhah [intending]:

a)      To eat the remainder outside [the Temple] or an olive’s worth outside;

b)      To burn the fistful or an olive’s worth of the fistful outside;

c)      To burn its frankincense outside,

d)      It is invalid, but it does not involve karet.   

3)      [One who takes a fistful from the minhah intending]:

a)      To eat the remainder the next day or an olive’s worth the next day;

b)      To burn the fistful the next day or an olive’s worth of the fistful the next day;

c)      To burn its frankincense the next day,

d)      It is piggul, and involves kareth. 

4)      This is the general rule: anyone who removes the fistful, or puts it into a vessel, or carries it to the altar, or burns it, [intending] to eat as much as an olive of that which is normally eaten or to burn [on the altar] as much as an olive of that which is normally burned outside its prescribed place, [the minhah] is invalid, but it does not involve karet;

a)      [Intending to eat or burn] after its designated time, it is piggul and it involves karet.

b)      Provided that the mattir is offered in accordance with the law.

5)      How is the mattir offered in accordance with the law?

a)      If one took out the fistful in silence, and put it in a vessel, or carried it, or burned it, [intending to eat it] after its designated time;

b)      Or if one took out the fistful [intending to eat the minhah] after its designated time, and put it in a vessel, and carried it and burned it in silence, or if one took out the fistful, or put it in a vessel, or carried it, or burned it [intending to eat the minhah] after its designated time.

c)      That is offering the mattir in accordance with the law.

 

Explanation

Section one: The amount of oil put into a minhah offering is one log for every tenth of an ephah of flour. If he puts in too much or too little oil the minhah is invalid. The amount of frankincense is two karots. If he puts in too little frankincense, the minhah is invalid, but it is not invalidated if he puts in too much.

Sections two-five: These sections are taught nearly word for word in Zevahim 2:2-4, so I have not rewritten my entire commentary here. The one difference is that here the mishnah discusses the four actions relevant to the minhah: taking out the fistful, putting it in a vessel, bringing it to the altar and burning it there. These are parallel to the four main activities with animal and bird sacrifices. Also, the fistful and the frankincense are parallel to the blood and the innards of the animal, such that the remainder of the minhah is parallel to the flesh of the animal.

Everything else in this mishnah is already explained in Zevahim 2:2-4.

 

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