Menahot, Chapter Ten, Mishnah Six
Our mishnah continues to deal with when new grain can be eaten and used in a sacrifice.
1) The omer permits [the new grain] throughout the land, and the two loaves permit it in the Temple.
2) One may not offer minhahs, first-fruits, or minhahs that accompany animal offerings, before the omer.
a) And if one did so, it is invalid.
3) Nor may one offer these before the two loaves.
a) But if one did so it was valid.
Section one: As we learned in yesterdays mishnah, once the omer is offered, it permits the eating of new grain throughout the land. However, this does not permit using new grain for a sacrifice. New grain could be used in the Temple only once the two loaves offered on Shavuot (see Leviticus 23:16) had been offered. In practice, this means that new grain would be permitted outside of the Temple about seven weeks before it was permitted in the Temple.
Section two: Before the omer is offered, no sacrifices can be brought from the new grain, because they cannot be eaten by anyone. This includes all types of minhahs, the first-fruits (bikkurim) as well as any minhah that would accompany an animal offering. And if one did offer a minhah from new grain before the omer was offered, the minhah is invalid.
Section three: While one should wait to bring sacrifices from the new grain until Shavuot, when the two loaves are offered, if one does bring an offering of new grain between the beginning of the omer and Shavuot the offering is valid, since people can eat the new grain.