Oktzim, Chapter One, Mishnah Four
Today’s mishnah lists parts of produce that are neither edible nor used as a handle. Therefore, they are not susceptible to impurity nor do they count as part of the volume. Most of the mishnah should be self-explanatory, so I have only explained some sections.
1) The following neither defile nor can they be defiled and they do not join together:
2) The roots of cabbage-stalks,
3) Young shoots of beet growing out of the root, and [similar] such turnip-heads,
4) [And produce whose roots] that are ordinarily cut off but in this case were pulled up [with their roots].
5) Rabbi Yose declares them all susceptible to contract uncleanness, but he declares insusceptible cabbage-stalks and turnip-heads.
Section two: Cabbages are held by the cabbage itself. The roots are neither eaten nor used to hold the cabbage.
Section three: These parts too are not eaten nor used as handles.
Section four: If it is typical to cut off the vegetable and leave the roots in the ground, but for some reason in this case, he uprooted the roots with the vegetable, the roots are not part of the vegetable.
Section five: Rabbi Yose says that all of the above are indeed handles to the vegetable, the only exceptions being the roots cabbage-stalks and turnip heads.