Zevahim

Introduction to Tractate Zevahim

Introduction   Tractate Zevahim is the first tractate in Seder Kodashim, most of which deals with sacrificial laws and other various laws governing the Temple. Zevahim deals with animal and bird sacrifices, with what disqualifies them and what happens when they are sacrificed outside of the Temple. There are seven types of sacrifices which I […]

Zevahim, Chapter 1, Mishnah 1

Zevahim, Chapter One, Mishnah One   Introduction Today’s mishnah discusses sacrifices that are offered by the priest with the intent of their being a different type of sacrifice from that which the person bringing them intended them to be. For instance a shelamim (peace offering) is offered with the intent of its being an olah […]

Zevahim, Chapter 1, Mishnah 2

Zevahim, Chapter One, Mishnah Two   Introduction Our mishnah continues to deal with sacrifices offered “not for their own name”, meaning in order for them to be different from what they were supposed to be.   Mishnah Two 1)      Yose ben Honi says: [Sacrifices] slaughtered in the name of a pesah or a hatat are […]

Zevahim, Chapter 1, Mishnah 3

Zevahim, Chapter One, Mishnah Three   Mishnah Three 1)      A pesah that was slaughtered on the morning of the fourteenth [of Nisan] under a different designation: a)      Rabbi Joshua declares it valid, just as if it had been slaughtered on the thirteenth. b)      Ben Batera declares it invalid, as if it had been slaughtered in […]

Zevahim, Chapter 1, Mishnah 4

Zevahim, Chapter One, Mishnah Four   Mishnah Four 1)      A pesah and a hatat which were slaughtered not in their own name, or he received [the blood], and carried it [to the altar] and sprinkled [it] not in their own name, 2)      Or in their own name and not in their own name, or not […]

Zevahim, Chapter 10, Mishnah 1

Zevahim, Chapter Ten, Mishnah One   Introduction The first five mishnayot of this chapter deal with the order in which different sacrifices are offered. There are two general rules, one which we will see in this mishnah and one in the next mishnah.   Mishnah One 1)      Whatever is more frequent than another, takes precedence […]

Zevahim, Chapter 10, Mishnah 2

Zevahim, Chapter Ten, Mishnah Two   Introduction The principle that whatever is more frequent takes precedence is determinative only when there is a set frequency to a given sacrifice. Most sacrifices are offered whenever a person needs to bring one without a determined frequency. Therefore, there is a different principle as to which takes precedence.   […]

Zevahim, Chapter 10, Mishnah 3

Zevahim, Chapter Ten, Mishnah Three   Mishnah Three 1)      A first-born precedes tithe, because its sanctity is from the womb, and it is eaten by priests. 2)      Tithe precedes bird [-offerings] because it is a slaughtered sacrifice, and part of it is most sacred: its blood and innards.    Explanation Section one: If a priest […]

Zevahim, Chapter 10, Mishnah 4

Zevahim, Chapter Ten, Mishnah Four   Mishnah Four 1)      Birds precede meal-offerings (minhah), because they are blood sacrifices. 2)      A sinner’s meal-offering precedes a voluntary meal-offering, because it comes on account of sin. 3)      A hatat of a bird precedes an olah of a bird. 4)      And it is likewise when he dedicates them.   […]

Zevahim, Chapter 10, Mishnah 5

Zevahim, Chapter Ten, Mishnah Five   Mishnah Five 1)      All hatats in the Torah precede ashams, except the asham of a metzora (one with a skin affliction), because it comes to make [a person] fit.    2)      All ashams of the Torah must be two-year olds and [two] silver shekels in value, except a nazirite’s […]

Zevahim, Chapter 10, Mishnah 6

Zevahim, Chapter Ten, Mishnah Six   Introduction Our mishnah returns to the discussion of what sacrifices take precedence over other sacrifices.   Mishnah Six 1)      Just as they take precedence in being offered, so they take precedence in being eaten. 2)      Yesterday’s shelamim and today’s shelamim, yesterday’s takes precedence. 3)      Yesterday’s shelamim and today’s hatat and asham, […]

Zevahim, Chapter 10, Mishnah 7

Zevahim, Chapter Ten, Mishnah Seven   Introduction This mishnah discusses how the sacrifices that priests eat are to be prepared. It is brought here because the debate between Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Shimon is tangentially related to the debate between the sages and Rabbi Shimon in yesterday’s mishnah.   Mishnah Seven 1)      And in all […]

Zevahim, Chapter 10, Mishnah 8

Zevahim, Chapter Ten, Mishnah Eight   Introduction In this mishnah Rabbi Shimon points out how one could identify what type of oil is being divided up by the priests in the Temple courtyard and what type of oil is being burned in order to remove it.   Mishnah Eight 1)      Rabbi Shimon said: if you […]

Zevahim, Chapter 11, Mishnah 1

Zevahim, Chapter Eleven, Mishnah One   Introduction In connection with a hatat, Leviticus 6:20 states, “Anything that touches its flesh shall become holy; and if any of its blood is spattered upon a garment, you shall wash the bespattered part in the holy place.” This chapter deals with various details that stem from this verse. […]

Zevahim, Chapter 11, Mishnah 2

Zevahim, Chapter Eleven, Mishnah Two   Introduction This mishnah teaches that when Leviticus 6:20 states, “And if any of its [the hatat] blood is spattered upon a garment, you shall wash the bespattered part in the holy place,” it is only referring to a valid hatat, and not to a disqualified one.   Mishnah Two […]

Zevahim, Chapter 11, Mishnah 3

Zevahim, Chapter Eleven, Mishnah Three   Mishnah Three 1)      If [blood] spurted [direct] from the [animal’s] throat onto a garment, it does not require washing. 2)      From the horn or from the base [of the altar], it does not require washing. 3)      If it spilled out on to the floor [of the Temple] and [the […]

Zevahim, Chapter 11, Mishnah 4

Zevahim, Chapter Eleven, Mishnah Four   Mishnah Four 1)      Whether a garment, a sack, or a hide, it requires washing in a holy place. 2)      The breaking of an earthen vessel must be in a holy place. 3)      And the scouring and rinsing of a copper vessel must be in a holy place.    4)      […]

Zevahim, Chapter 11, Mishnah 5

Zevahim, Chapter Eleven, Mishnah Five   Introduction This mishnah continues to deal with washing a garment or breaking an earthen vessel in the holy place in order to cleanse it from contamination from the hatat.   Mishnah Five 1)      If a garment was carried outside the curtains [of the Tabernacle], it must re-enter, and is […]

Zevahim, Chapter 11, Mishnah 6

Zevahim, Chapter Eleven, Mishnah Six   Introduction This mishnah teaches the exact same law as was found in yesterday’s mishnah, except that today’s mishnah refers to a copper vessel. Since the law is the same, I refer the reader to yesterday’s mishnah for more commentary.   Mishnah Six 1)      If a copper vessel was carried […]

Zevahim, Chapter 11, Mishnah 7

Zevahim, Chapter Eleven, Mishnah Seven   Introduction The earthen vessel is broken and the copper vessel scoured and rinsed if sacrifices were cooked in them. Our mishnah continues to deal with this law. We should note that again a mishnah concerning sacrificial law later becomes halakhically significant by being applied to other areas. The laws […]

Zevahim, Chapter 11, Mishnah 8

Zevahim, Chapter Eleven, Mishnah Eight   Introduction This mishnah introduces several principles as to when taste is transferred from one thing to another. Again, while the principles here relate directly to sacrificial law that is no longer practiced today (and wasn’t practiced at the time of the Mishnah either), these principles are also applicable to […]

Zevahim, Chapter 12, Mishnah 1

Zevahim, Chapter Twelve, Mishnah One   Introduction Our chapter discusses what parts of the sacrifices the priests receive. Our mishnah begins by pointing out which priests do not receive a share.   Mishnah One 1)      A tebul yom and one who lacks atonement do not share in sacrifices for consumption in the evening.   2)      […]

Zevahim, Chapter 12, Mishnah 2

Zevahim, Chapter Twelve, Mishnah Two   Introduction This mishnah teaches that the priests have the right to the hide of a sacrifice only if the flesh of the sacrifice was burned on the altar.   Mishnah Two 1)      Whenever the altar does not acquire its flesh, the priests do not acquire the hide, for it […]

Zevahim, Chapter 12, Mishnah 3

Zevahim, Chapter Twelve, Mishnah Three   Introduction This mishnah discusses who receives the hides of different types of sacrifices.   Mishnah Three 1)      The hides of less holy sacrifices belong to their owners. 2)      The hides of most holy sacrifices belong to the priest. This is a kal vehomer: if with an olah, even though […]

Zevahim, Chapter 12, Mishnah 4

Zevahim, Chapter Twelve, Mishnah Four   Mishnah Four 1)      All sacrifices which became disqualified, before they were flayed, their hides do not belong to the priests.    a)      After they were flayed, their hides belong to the priests. 2)      Rabbi Hanina vice-chief of the priests said: Never in my life have I seen a hide […]

Zevahim, Chapter 12, Mishnah 5

Zevahim, Chapter Twelve, Mishnah Five   Introduction In chapter five mishnayot 1-2 we learned that in certain cases, namely that of certain bullocks and goats, the sacrificial rites are performed on the inner altar. Their blood is spilled on the inner altar. Our mishnah deals with where these sacrifices are burned.   Mishnah Five 1)      […]

Zevahim, Chapter 12, Mishnah 6

Zevahim, Chapter Twelve, Mishnah Six   Introduction This mishnah continues to deal with the bullocks and goats whose blood was offered inside the sanctuary, in the inner altar. Specifically, the question is when do these carcasses defile the clothes of those who deal with them and cause him to defile any clothes that he touches. […]

Zevahim, Chapter 13, Mishnah 1

Zevahim, Chapter Thirteen, Mishnah One   Introduction Chapter thirteen deals with the prohibition of slaughtering and offering sacrifices outside of the Temple. This prohibition is found in Leviticus 17 which reads:   Leviticus 17:2-9  2 Speak to Aaron and his sons and to all the Israelite people and say to them: This is what the […]

Zevahim, Chapter 13, Mishnah 2

Zevahim, Chapter Thirteen, Mishnah Two   Introduction Our mishnah contains a debate between the sages and Rabbi Yose the Galilean similar in structure to the debate in yesterday’s mishnah. Here the topic is an unclean person who eats sacrifices. This is prohibited in Leviticus 7:20.   Mishnah Two 1)      An unclean [person] who eats [of […]

Zevahim, Chapter 13, Mishnah 3

Zevahim, Chapter Thirteen, Mishnah Three   Introduction This mishnah deals with various differences between the laws governing the prohibition of slaughtering a sacrifice outside of the Temple and those prohibiting offering a sacrifice outside of the Temple.   Mishnah Three 1)      Slaughtering [outside the Temple] is more stringent than offering up [outside], and offering up […]

Zevahim, Chapter 13, Mishnah 4

Zevahim, Chapter Thirteen, Mishnah Four   Introduction This mishnah continues to deal with the prohibition of offering a sacrifice outside of the Temple.   Mishnah Four 1)      In regard to both valid sacrifices or invalid sacrifices which had become unfit within [the Temple]: if one offers them outside, he is liable.   2)      If one […]

Zevahim, Chapter 13, Mishnah 5

Zevahim, Chapter Thirteen, Mishnah Five   Mishnah Five 1)      One who offers sacrifices together with the innards outside the Temple, is liable. 2)      If a minhah had not had its fistful removed and one offered it outside, he is exempt.   3)      If one took out the fistful, and then the fistful went back into the […]

Zevahim, Chapter 13, Mishnah 6

Zevahim, Chapter Thirteen, Mishnah Six   Mishnah Six 1)      As for the fistful and the frankincense, if one offered one of them [without the other] outside [the Temple], he is liable. a)      Rabbi Elazar says: he is exempt unless he offers the second too.   b)      [If one offered] one inside and the other outside, he […]

Zevahim, Chapter 13, Mishnah 7

Zevahim, Chapter Thirteen, Mishnah Seven   Introduction This mishnah deals with a person who “nips,” or slaughters a bird inside or outside the Temple and offers it up outside. As a reminder “nipping,” plucking off the head from the back of the neck, was the way that bird sacrifices were slaughtered inside the Temple, whereas […]

Zevahim, Chapter 13, Mishnah 8

Zevahim, Chapter Thirteen, Mishnah Eight   Mishnah Eight 1)      As for a hatat whose blood was received in one goblet: a)      If one [first] sprinkled [the blood] outside and then sprinkled [it] inside; b)      [Or] inside and then outside, he is liable, because the whole of it was eligible inside. 2)      If the blood was […]

Zevahim, Chapter 14, Mishnah 1

Zevahim, Chapter Fourteen, Mishnah One   Introduction The first three mishnayot of our chapter continue to deal with the prohibition of slaughtering an animal outside the Temple.   Mishnah One If one slaughtered the hatat cow [the red heifer] outside its appointed place, and likewise if one offered the scapegoat [of Yom Kippur] outside, he […]

Zevahim, Chapter 14, Mishnah 10

Zevahim, Chapter Fourteen, Mishnah Ten   Introduction When the Tabernacle stood in Gilgal, Nov and Givon, it was permitted to offer sacrifices at local altars. Still there were certain sacrifices that were offered only at the Tabernacle, as we explained in connection to some of the earlier mishnayot of this chapter. Our mishnah discusses the […]

Zevahim, Chapter 14, Mishnah 2

Zevahim, Chapter Fourteen, Mishnah Two   Mishnah Two 1)      [As for an ox] that had sexual relations with a woman or one with whom a man had sexual relations; or an animal set aside [for idolatry], or that had been worshipped [as an idol]; or that was the fee of a whore, or [a dog’s] […]

Zevahim, Chapter 14, Mishnah 3

Zevahim, Chapter Fourteen, Mishnah Three   Introduction This is the final mishnah that deals with the prohibition of sacrificing an animal outside the Temple (take a deep breath, we’re almost there).   Mishnah Three 1)      “Before time” applies both to [the animal] itself and to its owner. a)      What is “before time” as applied to […]

Zevahim, Chapter 14, Mishnah 4

Zevahim, Chapter Fourteen, Mishnah Four   Introduction Since the past chapter and a half have dealt with the prohibition of offering a sacrifice outside the Temple, the mishnah now notes that in the past, before the Temple was built, there were periods where it was permissible to offer a sacrifice anywhere one wished. These local […]

Zevahim, Chapter 14, Mishnah 5

Zevahim, Chapter Fourteen, Mishnah Five   Mishnah Five 1)      When they came to Gilgal, bamot (local altars) were [again] permitted. 2)      Most holy sacrifices were eaten within the curtains, and less holy sacrifices [were eaten] anywhere.   Explanation Section one: When the Israelites crossed the Jordan they came first to Gilgal and they set up […]

Zevahim, Chapter 14, Mishnah 6

Zevahim, Chapter Fourteen, Mishnah Six   Mishnah Six 1)      When they came to Shiloh, bamot were forbidden. 2)      [The Tabernacle] there had no roof, but [consisted of] a base of stones with a ceiling of curtains, and that was the “resting place” [referred to in the Torah]. 3)      Most holy sacrifices were eaten within the […]

Zevahim, Chapter 14, Mishnah 7

Zevahim, Chapter Fourteen, Mishnah Seven   Mishnah Seven 1)      When they came to Nov and to Givon, bamot were [again] permitted. 2)      Most holy sacrifices were eaten within the curtains, and less holy sacrifices in all of the cities of Israel.   Explanation Section one: When Shiloh was destroyed and the ark was taken by […]

Zevahim, Chapter 14, Mishnah 8

Zevahim, Chapter Fourteen, Mishnah Eight   Mishnah Eight 1)      When they came to Jerusalem, bamot were forbidden and were never again permitted, and that was the ‘inheritance’. 2)      Most holy sacrifices were eaten within the curtains, and less holy sacrifices and second tithe within the walls [of Jerusalem].   Explanation Section one: Deuteronomy 12:9 reads, […]

Zevahim, Chapter 14, Mishnah 9

Zevahim, Chapter Fourteen, Mishnah Nine   Introduction When it comes to sacrificing outside the Temple, according to rabbinic reckoning one can transgress three commandments: 1) A negative commandment—“Take care not to sacrifice your burnt offerings in any place you like” (Deuteronomy 12:13); 2) A positive commandment—“But only in the place that the Lord will choose […]

Zevahim, Chapter 2, Mishnah 1

Zevahim, Chapter Two, Mishnah One   Mishnah One 1)      All sacrifices whose blood was caught by a: a)      non-priest, b)      an onen, c)      a tebul yom, d)      one lacking [priestly] vestments, e)      one lacking sacrificial atonement, f)        one who had not washed his hands and feet, g)      an uncircumcised [priest]; h)      an unclean [priest]; i)        […]

Zevahim, Chapter 2, Mishnah 2

Zevahim, Chapter Two, Mishnah Two   Introduction This mishnah begins to deal with the subject of a priest who slaughters a sacrifice with the intent of doing a subsequent activity at the wrong time or wrong place. The wrong intention disqualifies the sacrifice, but in different ways and with different consequences.    Mishnah Two 1)      […]

Zevahim, Chapter 2, Mishnah 3

Zevahim, Chapter Two, Mishnah Three   Mishnah Three 1)      This is the general rule: anyone who slaughters or receives [the blood], or carries [it] or sprinkles [it] [intending] to eat as much as an olive of that which is normally eaten or to burn [on the altar] as much as an olive of that which […]

Zevahim, Chapter 2, Mishnah 4

Zevahim, Chapter Two, Mishnah Four   Introduction This mishnah explains the last line of yesterday’s mishnah.   Mishnah Four 1)      How is the mattir offered in accordance with the law? a)      If one slaughtered in silence, and received, or carried, or sprinkled, [intending to eat the sacrifice] after its designated time; b)      Or if one […]

Zevahim, Chapter 2, Mishnah 5

Zevahim, Chapter Two, Mishnah Five   Mishnah Five 1)      [If one intended] to eat as much as an olive on the next day [and] as much as an olive on the outside its intended place, [or] as much as an olive outside its designated place [and] as much as an olive on the next day;  […]

Zevahim, Chapter 3, Mishnah 1

Zevahim, Chapter Three, Mishnah One   Introduction In chapter two, mishnah one we learned that only a fit priest can receive the blood, carry it to the altar and sprinkle it on the altar. Today we learn that anyone can slaughter the animal.   Mishnah One 1)      All unfit persons who slaughtered, their slaughtering is […]

Zevahim, Chapter 3, Mishnah 2

Zevahim, Chapter Three, Mishnah Two   Introduction In this mishnah we learn that at certain times a priest may perform one of the sacrificial actions in an invalid manner and yet may afterwards remedy the situation and thereby preserve the validity of the sacrifice.   Mishnah Two 1)      If a fit person received [the blood] […]

Zevahim, Chapter 3, Mishnah 3

Zevahim, Chapter Three, Mishnah Three   Introduction This mishnah lists cases in which a person has an improper intention while sacrificing the animal but this improper intention does not render the sacrifice invalid.   Mishnah Three 1)      If one slaughters the sacrifice [intending] to eat what is not normally eaten, or to burn [on the […]

Zevahim, Chapter 3, Mishnah 4

Zevahim, Chapter Three, Mishnah Four   Mishnah Four One who slaughters the sacrifice [intending] to eat as much as an olive of the skin, or of the juice, or of the jelly, or of the hardened meat, or of the bones, or of the tendons, or of the horns, or of the hoofs, either after […]

Zevahim, Chapter 3, Mishnah 5

Zevahim, Chapter Three, Mishnah Five   Introduction This mishnah deals with offspring, eggs and milk and their status vis a vis the sacrifice as a whole.   Mishnah Five 1)      If one slaughters sacred animals [intending] to eat the fetus or the afterbirth outside [of the place or time where the animal must be eaten], […]

Zevahim, Chapter 3, Mishnah 6

Zevahim, Chapter Three, Mishnah Six   Introduction In this mishnah we learn that usually only two types of illegitimate intentions can invalidate a sacrifice—the intention of eating it outside the prescribed place of after the prescribed time. Other illegitimate intentions do not render the sacrifice invalid.   Mishnah Six 1)      If he slaughtered it with […]

Zevahim, Chapter 4, Mishnah 1

Zevahim, Chapter Four, Mishnah One   Mishnah One 1)      Bet Shammai says: any [blood] which is to be sprinkled on the outer altar, if [the priest] applied [it] with one sprinkling, he has made atonement, [and in the case of a hatat two applications, but Bet Hillel says: also the case of the hatat if […]

Zevahim, Chapter 4, Mishnah 2

Zevahim, Chapter Four, Mishnah Two   Introduction This mishnah continues to discuss the effect of improper intentions had when sprinkling the blood.   Mishnah Two With regard to any [blood] which is sprinkled on the inner altar, if [the priest] omitted one of the applications, he has not atoned; therefore if he applied all in […]

Zevahim, Chapter 4, Mishnah 3

Zevahim, Chapter Four, Mishnah Three   Introduction As we have learned, piggul is something that was sacrificed with the intent of eating or burning it outside of its appropriate time. In today’s mishnah we learn that certain items are not liable for piggul, meaning that if one eats or burns these items he cannot be […]

Zevahim, Chapter 4, Mishnah 4

Zevahim, Chapter Four, Mishnah Four   Introduction This mishnah discusses what permits the parts of various sacrifices to be burned or eaten. The importance of this is that if one has an improper intent while performing an action with the blood that permits this sacrifice to be eaten or burned, then the sacrifice is piggul […]

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