Yoma, Chapter Seven, Mishnah Three

 

Introduction

Our mishnah deals with the sacrifices that have not yet been offered.  So far only three sacrifices have been offered:  the morning tamid, one bull and one goat.  There are still many sacrifices yet left to perform. 

 

Mishnah Three

1)      If he read in the garments of linen, he would then sanctify his hands and feet, strip off his clothes, go down and immerse himself, come up and dry himself.

2)      They brought him the golden clothes, he put them on, sanctified his hands and feet, went out, offered up his own ram and the ram of the people, and the seven unblemished, one-year-old-lambs, the words of Rabbi Eliezer.

a)      Rabbi Akiba said: these were offered up together with the morning tamid of the morning,

3)      The bull for the whole burnt offering and the goat which is offered up outside were offered up together with the dusk tamid.

 

Explanation

Section one:  If he read in garments of linen, then he must now wash his hands and feet, undress and go to the mikveh and then put on new clothes.   However, if he read the verses in his own cloak (see mishnah one) then he would have already had to wash his hands and feet before removing the linen clothes and putting on the cloak.  At this point he would need only take off his cloak and go immerse in the mikveh.

Section two:  He now puts on the golden garments, the clothes that the high priest would wear during the remainder of the year (see above 3:4).  After putting on the new clothes he must again wash his hands and feet.

The mishnah now makes reference to Leviticus 16:24, “Then he shall come out and offer his burnt offering and the burnt offering of the people, making expiation for himself and for the people.”   This is the ram referred to in our mishnah.  According to Rabbi Eliezer he now offers the seven unblemished lambs mentioned in Numbers 29:8, all of which are additional (musaf) offerings.  Rabbi Eliezer holds that these lambs are sacrificed before the bull which is also mentioned in Numbers 29:8, even though in the verse the bull comes first.  This verse also mentions a ram.  Our mishnah identifies this ram with the ram in Leviticus 16:5, which is the “ram of the people.”  In other words, these are not two separate rams, which would bring our total to three, but rather two rams, one which is his (Leviticus 16:3) and one which is the people’s (v. 5).  These are the two mentioned in v. 24 as well.  Rabbi Akiva holds that the seven lambs were sacrificed with the morning tamid and not later in the day, as Rabbi Eliezer claims.

Section three:  The bull for a burnt offering (Numbers 29:9) and the goat which is a sin-offering (v. 11) are the next to be sacrificed.  This goat is called “done outside” in order to distinguish it from the other sin-offering goat whose blood is spilled inside the Holy of Holies.  These sacrifices are offered before the dusk tamid, which is always the final sacrifice of the day.   

 

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